H o n g  Y i n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(English Translation Version B)

 

Li Hongzhi



Table of Contents

 

Tempering One’s Heart and Will 1

Being a Human. 2

Enlightened Being. 3

Who Dares Give Up the Heart of Ordinary People. 4

The Wish. 5

Nonexistence. 6

Falun Dafa. 7

Harmonizing with Fa. 8

Taking the Ship of Righteous Fa. 9

Inaction. 10

Studying Dafa. 11

Perfect and Illuminate. 12

Pursuing a Righteous Fa Course. 13

Obtaining Fa. 14

Predestination. 15

Fulfilling the Wish. 16

Assisting Fa. 17

Causality. 18

Cultivating in a Maze. 19

Solid Cultivation. 20

Buddha Fa Perfects and Contains All 21

Saving Again. 22

Genuine Cultivation. 23

Assimilation, Consummation. 24

Dafa Clears Away Confusion. 25

Leaping Out of the Three Realms. 26

Visiting the Hanging Temple. 27

Visiting the Heng Mountains. 28

Clear Distinction. 29

Visiting South China Temple. 30

Self-Cultivation. 31

Quietly Observing. 32

Immense. 33

Presiding Over Heaven and Earth. 34

Distinction Between Human and Enlightened Beings. 35

Between Human and Demon. 36

High Places Are Extremely Cold. 37

The Great Enlightened. 38

Being Employed and Cultivating Buddhahood. 39

After Havoc. 40

Lost 41

Demonic Changes. 42

In Dao. 43

Mighty Virtue. 44

Lord Buddha. 45

The Falun World. 46

Predestiny Leads Back to Sacred Fruit 47

Visiting Xiangtang Mountain Temple. 48

Climbing the Tai Mountains. 49

Reaching Consummation, Completing Gong. 50

Tai Chi 51

Arduously Saving. 52

Deviation. 53

Saving Beings Far and Wide. 54

A Clear Heart 55

Undisturbed in Tribulation. 56

The End of Dharma. 57

Let Go of Attachments. 58

With Action. 59

Visiting Yue Fei Shrine. 60

Visiting the Hometown. 61

Visiting the Qing Dong Tombs. 62

Good and Evil Are Already Clear 63

Visiting Sun-Moon Pond. 64

Recalling Chang’an. 65

Settle the Heart 66

Looking Back. 67

The World’s Ten Evils. 68

Visiting Yanmen Pass. 69

Assimilation. 70

New Life. 71

Laugh. 72

GLOSSARY.. 73

ENDNOTES.. 75

 

                                                                                                                                                                       

Note: Glossary and Endnotes have been added by translators.

 


Tempering One’s Heart and Will

 

Reaching Consummation, obtaining Buddha’s Fruit,

Eating bitterness treated as joy.

Toiling the body does not count as bitterness,

Cultivating the heart is most agonizing.

Each and every barrier must be broken through,

Here and there, demons are everywhere.

A hundred hardships falling all at once, 

See how one lives.

Able to endure suffering in the world,

Transcending the world, is a Buddha.

 

December 17, 1976


Being a Human

 

One who is for fame resents till death,

One who is for gain disavows family;

One who is for sentiment brings vexation on himself,

Bitterly fighting each other, making karma over a lifetime.

 

Not seeking fame, enjoying leisure, feeling content,

Not stressing gain, a benevolent righteous person;

Not moved by sentiment, clear-hearted with few desires,

With benevolence, cultivating oneself, accruing virtue over a lifetime.

 

July 13, 1986


Enlightened Being

 

Ordinary people don’t know me,

I sit in mystery;

Amidst profit and desire, no me,

A hundred years later, only me.

 

February 2, 1987

 

Note: Written before I taught Fa, when

I myself was cultivating alone.


Who Dares Give Up the Heart of Ordinary People

 

Ordinary people only want to be immortals,

Behind mystery and wonder, there is heartache;

Cultivating the heart, severing desires, discarding attachments,

Lost in tribulations, one blames the heavens.

 

August 9, 1988


The Wish

 

The vast, boundless heaven and earth look small to me,

The immense firmament was made by whom?

Beyond heaven and earth—even more boundless,

For the grand wish,[1] spreading the great Dao.

 

January 1, 1990           


Nonexistence

 

Live with no pursuit,

Die not caring about staying;

Clear out all wild thoughts,

Cultivating to a Buddha is not hard.


October 20, 1991       


Falun Dafa

 

Gong cultivation has a way, the heart is the path

Dafa has no bounds, hardship serves as the ferry

 

July 24, 1992  


 

Harmonizing with Fa

 

Buddha’s light illuminates everywhere,

Propriety and justice are perfected and illuminated.

Together, wholeheartedly strive upward,

The path ahead is bright.


December 27, 1992    


Taking the Ship of Righteous Fa

 

Truthful…mystical…cultivate…[2]

Drowsy…alert…enlighten…[3]

 

January 17, 1993         


Inaction

 

Cultivation in the three religions[4] teaches inaction,

Using the mind improperly is with action;

Exclusively doing good deeds is still action,

Attachment discarded is true inaction.

 

January 17, 1993

 


Studying Dafa

 

Inborn quality is a condition from birth,

Right enlightenment is the reason for a high-level

person’s wisdom.

With Zhen-Shan-Ren in the heart, there is Dao,

Cultivating Falun Dafa can lead to Consummation.


February 18, 1993


Perfect and Illuminate

 

The heart embraces Zhen-Shan-Ren,

Cultivate oneself, benefit others.

Dafa does not leave the heart,

Some year, surely transcend the human.


February 28, 1994      


Pursuing a Righteous Fa Course

 

Supernormal capabilities are basically small tricks,

Dafa is essential.


April 2, 1994               


Obtaining Fa

 

Genuinely cultivate Dafa,

Only this is great.

Assimilate to Dafa,

Some year, definitely succeed.

 

July 7, 1994    


Predestination

 

Great enlightened beings’ hearts are clearer,

Obtaining Fa, journeying in the world.

A long, long time, several thousand years,

Predestination arrives, Fa is already formed.

 

August 27, 1994          


Fulfilling the Wish

 

With the same heart, coming to the world,

Having earlier obtained Fa.

One day flying away to the heavens,

Free and unrestrained, Fa has no bounds.

 

August 27, 1994          


Assisting Fa

 

Make the wish to save all beings,

Assist Master with the journey in the world;

Aid me in turning Falun,

Fa forms, heaven and earth move.[5]


August 28, 1994


Causality

 

It is not that it’s painful on the path of cultivation,

Karma of lifetimes and lifetimes impedes;

Steeling the heart, eliminating karma, cultivating xinxing,

Forever possessing a human form is a Buddha.


September 15, 1994    


Cultivating in a Maze

 

Ordinary people have difficulty knowing the hardship

of cultivation,

Competing and fighting treated as happiness;

Cultivate until not one attachment is left,

Bitterness gone, sweetness come, is true happiness.


September 15, 1994    


Solid Cultivation

 

Study Fa, obtain Fa,

Compare in studying, compare in cultivating,

Examine each and every deed,

Accomplishing is cultivating.


October 7, 1994         


Buddha Fa Perfects and Contains All

 

Spread Dafa far and wide,

Save humans out of the Five Elements;

Commit the mind, cultivate and practice,

Reach Consummation, transcend the Three Realms.


October 15, 1994       


Saving Again

 

Falun constantly rotates, saves all beings,

Study Fa, obtain Fa, cultivate xinxing;

In the Dharma-ending period,  the wheel turns again,

The hearts of the predestined are illuminated by Fa.


December 27, 1994    


Genuine Cultivation

 

The heart harbors Zhen-Shan-Ren,

Falun Dafa forms;

Constantly cultivate xinxing,

Consummation—wonderful without limits.


December 27, 1994    


Assimilation, Consummation

 

The universe,[6] vast and indistinct,

A wheel of golden light.

The enlightened descend to the world,

Heaven and earth face the same direction.

The cosmos, clear and bright,

Assimilates to the light of Fa.

Consummate, fly and ascend,

Together return to heaven.


December 31, 1994    


Dafa Clears Away Confusion

 

All things over a long, long time, like mists and clouds

passing the eyes

Bewitch the human heart,

Why the vast, indistinct heaven and earth was born

Baffles all beings’ wisdom.


January 27, 1995         


Leaping Out of the Three Realms

 

Not caring about human pain or joy

Is a cultivator

Not attached to gain or loss in the world

An Arhat

 

May 1995       


Visiting the Hanging Temple[7]

 

In the middle of a thousand-foot cliff hangs the temple,

Widely spreading Dafa, it’s hard to find spare time;

In this life, revisiting the ancient cliff temple,

One day, with Fa rectified, thousands of temples spread.

 

June 11, 1995
Visiting the Heng Mountains[8]

 

The Heng Mountains with clouds and ridges, where is

the Way,[9]

The ancient Daoist temple with a long history, tourists come;

Ordinary people don’t know the wonder in the mystical,

They use the ancient temple to make dirty money.


June 11, 1995


Clear Distinction

 

Buddha comes and journeys in the world,

Ordinary people lost, not awake;

Malicious beings even harm Buddha,

Good and evil are already clear.

 

July 26, 1995  


Visiting South China Temple[10]

 

Buddha school, a pure land, hard to stay clean and tranquil,

Demonic ways and evil hearts roam in the chaotic world;

The more well-known the place, the more demons,

A mess of people yelling and selling, firecrackers popping.


August 15, 1995          


Self-Cultivation

 

Dafa spreads far and wide

How many people can obtain it

In this world, so many things, one after another

Busy with a hundred things, maybe cultivating

in spare time

One day, as soon as mists and clouds pass

Only then will it be known that true Dao is already obtained


October 6, 1995         


Quietly Observing

 

Serenely cultivating, in a spare moment, gazing at immortals,

Each displays divine power for a hundred, a thousand years;

Human hearts have turned demonic, the world is not the same,

All gods are not offering salvation, awaiting the end of havoc.

 

October 16, 1995       


Immense

 

The firmament, infinitely distant,

With a shift in thought, comes before the eyes;

Heaven and earth, boundlessly vast,

Falun, heaven and earth rotate.


November 9, 1995      


Presiding Over Heaven and Earth

 

Heaven so vast, above heaven there is heaven

All have sun and moon, layer after layer, filling the universe

Earth so broad, there is heaven, there is earth

Together give birth to everything, so many things, everywhere in heaven and earth

  
November 10, 1995    


Distinction Between Human and Enlightened Beings

 

What is human? Sentiments and desires fill the body.

What is immortal?  Human mentalities do not exist.

What is Buddha? Benevolence and virtue in abundance.

What is Dao?  A pure and tranquil true being.


November 10, 1995                


Between Human and Demon

 

Foxes, weasels, ghosts and snakes disrupt the world,

In black smoke and miasma, performing sorcery;

With no master and no cultivation, claiming a great master,

Crazy and mad for twenty years.

 
November 11, 1995                


High Places Are Extremely Cold

 

Worrying about all things in the human world,

Laboring the heart over hardships in heaven.

Having something to say, telling it to whom?

It’s more frigid at high places.


November 11, 1995    


The Great Enlightened

 

Having fully experienced thousands of kinds of hardships,

Two feet tread on a thousand demons;

Upright the palm, heaven and earth quakes,

In the air stands a giant Buddha.

 

November 12, 1995                


Being Employed and Cultivating Buddhahood

 

Buddhism has taught Precept for two thousand five hundred years,

Discard fame and material interest first, then cultivate through hardship;

Today Buddhist monks are paid salaries,

At work there are even uniforms.


December 25, 1995                


After Havoc

 

At the most micro and the most macro, degenerate things are corrected,

From the macro, micro, and ten directions, looking at the firmament;

Heaven is clear, the body transparent, the cosmos right,

The great kalpa has already passed; the universe is bright.


January 2, 1996           


Lost

 

Many, many beings fill the universe,

Layer after layer, each has heaven as well as earth.

Wonderful scenes are marvelous beyond bounds,

Worldly humans are lost, not awake.

 

Wanting to see—easier said than done,

Cultivation is like climbing a ladder.

Clearing away confusion at a high place,

Magnificent sights are wonderful, hard to describe.

 

January 3, 1996           


Demonic Changes

 

The cosmic climate greatly changes,

Worldly humans without kind thoughts.

Human hearts lose control, demon nature manifests,

Natural catastrophes, human calamities, sorrows and complaints.

 

Man meets man as enemy,

It’s hard for every thing to turn out as one wishes.

How would worldly humans know the reason,

Those who cultivate Dao may understand the enigma.

 
January 4, 1996           


In Dao

 

Present but the mind is not—

            No dispute with the world.

Seeing but seeing not—

           Not lost, not tempted.

Hearing but hearing not—

           A mind hard to disturb.

Eating but tasting not—

            A mouth freed from attachment.

Doing but pursuing not—

            Constantly dwelling in Dao.

Quiet but thinking not—

            The mystical and wondrous may be seen.

 
January 4, 1996           


Mighty Virtue

 

Dafa does not leave the body,

The heart harbors Zhen-Shan-Ren;

In the world is a great Arhat,

Spirits and ghosts fear greatly.


January 6, 1996           


Lord Buddha

 

Who knows the immensity of heaven and earth?

The Milky Way is beneath the feet.

The universe, how vast is it?

The revolving wheel is held in hand.

 

January 6, 1996           


The Falun World

 

The infinite beauty and wonder is hard to describe with words,

Myriads of lights and colors dazzle the two eyes;

Buddha’s kingdom, a sacred land, is full of happiness and longevity,

The Falun World is at a high place.


January 23, 1996


Predestiny Leads Back to Sacred Fruit

 

Seeking Master for how many years,

One day seeing him in person,

Obtaining Fa, cultivating to return,

Reaching Consummation, returning with Master.

 

January 23, 1996         


Visiting Xiangtang Mountain Temple[11]

 

The sun and moon take turns orbiting,

Heaven and earth is the revolving wheel,

Count with fingers—two hundred years,

The old Xiangtang no longer exists.


March 6, 1996


Climbing the Tai Mountains[12]

 

Climbing up high stairs, a path of thousands of feet,

Winding, steep, difficult to take steps;

Looking back, like watching the cultivation of righteous Fa,

Stopping in mid air—hard to be saved.

Persevering, lifting the feet, the ten-thousand-pound legs,

Forbearing hardships, advancing whole-heartedly,         discarding attachments;

Dafa disciples—thousands, millions,

Completing Gong, reaching Consummation at high places.


April 15, 1996

 


Reaching Consummation, Completing Gong

 

Cultivate away fame, material interest, and emotion,

Reach Consummation, ascending the firmament,

With compassion, looking at the world,

Only then, awakening from confusion.

 

April 21, 1996             


Tai Chi

 

The true being Zhang Sanfeng[13] surpassed the world,

The great Dao, invincible, accessed heaven and earth,

Later generations, for fame, messed up my boxing practice,

Altered my Tai Chi, damaged my name.


July 1, 1996    


Arduously Saving

 

Before danger and disaster come, sailing the Fa boat,

Millions and billions of hardships and perils, wave after wave, block and hinder,

Fragmented and broken, carrying heaven and earth,

A dream, ten thousand years—eventually approaching

the shore.


September 23, 1996    


Deviation

 

Yin and Yang hang upside down,

Human hearts have changed,

Ghosts and beasts all over the earth,

Humans are far from Dao.

 

September 26, 1996    


Saving Beings Far and Wide

 

Let go of ordinary people’s mentality

Obtaining Fa, one is already immortal

Leap out of the Three Realms

Ascend to heaven in a Buddha body


October 16, 1996       


A Clear Heart

 

As Master, I widely spread Fa, save all beings,

People across the four seas get the scriptures, board

the Fa boat,

While Ten Evils[14] poison the world, I spread Dafa,

Turn Falun, rectify heaven and earth.


October 16, 1996, in Atlanta   


Undisturbed in Tribulation

 

Righteous Fa spreads,

Hardships piled upon hardships.[15]

Myriad demons block,

Perils exist within perils.


December 22, 1996    


The End of Dharma

 

Worldly people are not merciful,

And deities are not divine,

The human world has no Dao,

Where do righteous thoughts exist.


December 22, 1996                
Let Go of Attachments

 

In this world, humans all are lost,

Attached to fame and gain,

Ancients, honest and benevolent,

With a calm mind, happiness and longevity complete.

 

December 25, 1996    


With Action

 

Building temples, worshiping deities—things, truly many things,

How would one know that with action all comes to naught;

Foolish, lost, vainly dreaming of the road to the Western Paradise,

Blindly groping, night walking, scooping for the moon in water.


March 28, 1997          


Visiting Yue Fei[16] Shrine

 

Tragic heroic history gone like running water,

Righteous spirit and faithful soul remain in the world;

Thousand-year-old left-behind shrine, a place that pains the heart,

There is only the loyal heart that shines on later generations.

 

September 11, 1997, in Tangyin


Visiting the Hometown

 

Autumn rain soft as tears,

Tear after tear grieves the heart;

The hometown without old friends,

Home fields desolated several times.

Eight hundred autumns have come and gone,

Who would know who I am;

Head bowed, burning a few incense sticks,

The smoke flies toward old friends;

Turning the body back, the vow fulfilled,

Coming again to save all, returning home.

 

September 11, 1997,
in Yue Fei’s hometown


Visiting the Qing Dong Tombs[17]

 

Three hundred years like water flowing,

Old palaces, desolate graves—everything seen weathered;

Who would know this day would come again to the world,

One day Fa, rectified, will stay forever.

 

October 26, 1997, at Kangxi’s Tomb[18]


Good and Evil Are Already Clear

 

Living beings have turned demonic—endless calamities,

Dafa rescues and saves in a chaotic world;

Not distinguishing between righteous and evil, slandering heaven’s Fa,

People of Ten Evils[19] wait for the autumn wind.


November 15, 1997    


Visiting Sun-Moon Pond[20]

 

A pool of clear pond water,

Mists and rosy clouds cast spots of sparkling light,

Physically being in the chaotic world,

It’s hard to be a lone beauty.

 

November 17, 1997    


Recalling Chang’an[21]

 

Qinchuan’s[22] mountains and rivers have changed,

Chang’an exists under earth.

The flourishing age, the heavenly dynasty, is gone,

In the twinkling of an eye—a hundred, a thousand springs.

Where to look for Taizong,[23]

Dafa saves the Tang[24] people.


November 22, 1997    


Settle the Heart

 

Predestination is already established,

Fa is being cultivated,

Read the book more,

Consummation is near.


January 27, 1998         


Looking Back

 

Over a long, long time, things throughout remote ages,

Formed people in a maze;

Whoever claims great intelligence and wisdom,

Amid sentiments, prances about heaven and earth.

 

February 19, 1998      


The World’s Ten Evils

 

Humans without kind thoughts—

            Human against human as enemy.

Destroying traditions—

            Culture turning decadent.

Homosexuality, licentious desires—

            Dark heart, turning demonic.

Gambling popular, drugs popular—

            Following whims and desires.

Lifting restrictions, promiscuity—

           Leading to evil and wickedness.
Sinister gangs, treacherous factions—

           Politicians and bandits, all one family.

Acting on one’s own decisions, deranging the masses—
         
Against heaven, betraying Dao.
Blindly believing in science—
   
       Mutant mankind.

Publicizing and revering violence—
         
Fond of audaciousness, competing at ruthlessness.
Religions turned evil—
   
        Money seekers, politicians.

July 7, 1998                


Visiting Yanmen Pass[25]

 

Setting foot on Yanmen Pass,

Deep emotions churn in the chest.

Thousand-year-old ancient way present,

Inside the pass there is no familiar smoke.

Yanzhao,[26] whipping the horse, left,

Winds and clouds passed, a thousand years.

Raising the eyes, looking down from the pass,

Dafa is in the Central Plains.[27]

 

August 10, 1998, at Yanmen Pass


Assimilation

 

Scriptures cultivate one’s heart,

Exercises refine one’s body;

One day upon Consummation,

Zhen-Shan-Ren stays.

 

November 18, 1992

Revised in August 1998           

 


New Life

 

Righteous Fa spreads,

Thousands of demons blocking,

Saves beings,

Notions change,

The degenerate perish,

Light and brightness show.

 

August 7, 1998            


Laugh

 

I laugh—living beings awaken

I laugh—Dafa begins spreading

I laugh—the ferry sets off

I laugh—living beings have hope


November 16, 1998


GLOSSARY

 

Arhat: An enlightened being with Fruit Status in the Buddha School and one who is beyond the Three Realms.

Buddha: “Enlightened being” in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language.

Dafa: “Great Law,” great principles.

Dao: Also spelled “Tao.” “Dao” means a way of cultivation; an enlightened being through such a cultivation; road or way; Taoism or Daoism; morals, principles.

Dharma: “Law.”

Dharma-ending period: According to Buddha Sakyamuni, the Dharma-ending period would begin five hundred years after he passed away, when people would no longer have the Dharma (the Law) in their hearts.

Fa: “Law,” principles.

Falun: “Law Wheel.”

Five Elements: According to the ancient Chinese, everything in the universe is made up of five elements: metal, wood, water, fire, and earth.

Gong: 1) Cultivation energy; 2) A practice that cultivates such energy.

Hong Yin: Hong Yin is the phonetic translation of the Chinese title “洪吟,” which has several meanings.  Hong (洪) is a character in the author’s name. Hong (洪) also means grand, vast, and immense.  Yin (吟) means “to chant, sing or incant (a poem).”

Karma: A black substance resulting from wrongdoing.

Tai Chi: A meditation exercise that belongs to the Dao School.

Three Realms: In religions, the “Three Realms” refers to heaven, earth, and the netherworld.

Xinxing: Heart and mind nature; moral character.

Yin and Yang: The Dao School believes that everything contains yin and yang, which are mutually exclusive yet interdependent; for example, female (yin) and male (yang).

Zhen-Shan-Ren: Truthfulness-Benevolence-Forbearance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENDNOTES

 



[1] “For the grand wish” can also be translated as “To fulfill the grand wish.”

[2] The ellipses in this line represent the Chinese character , which suggests self-reflection by questioning, or by guessing with some doubt, or self-reflection with an element of exclamation.

[3] The ellipses in this line represent the Chinese character , which suggests a pause in thinking, or self-reflection with an element of exclamation.

[4] “Three religions” refers to the three religions in China: Buddhism, Daoism (Taoism), and Confucianism.

[5] This line can also be translated as “Fa forms, access heaven and earth.”

[6] The Chinese word 乾坤 has two definitions: “heaven and earth” and “universe.”  Here we use the second definition, “universe,” as the original Chinese text in line 4 uses 天地 to express the term “heaven and earth.”

[7] The Hanging Temple, Xuan Kong Si, was built by a monk about 1,400 years ago on a steep cliff about 50 miles from Datong City, Shanxi Province.  The temple comprises buildings of several stories, yet looks as if it is only propped up by several wooden columns.

[8] The Heng Mountains, located in the northern part of Shanxi Province and northeastern part of Hebei Province, are among the five most famous mountains in China.  The Yanmen Pass is on the west side.  It is said that the venerable Zhang Guo, one of the well-known eight deities in China, cultivated Dao in the Heng Mountains.  The Hanging Temple is in the Heng Mountains.

[9] “Way” is translated from the word , which means both road and Dao.

[10] South China Temple is a Buddhist temple with a history of more than 1,000 years, located in Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province.

[11] Xiangtang Mountain Temple is located close to Handan City, Hebei Province.  The temple is famous for its numerous stone scriptures of Buddhism.

[12] The Tai Mountains, located in the middle of Shandong Province, are the most famous of the five greatest mountains in China.  Many emperors officiated the rites of worshipping heaven and earth in the Tai Mountains.

[13] Zhang Sanfeng, also known as Zhang Zhenren (“true man”), was a famous cultivator of Dao who created Tai Chi.

[14] For “Ten Evils,” please refer to the poem “The World’s Ten Evils.”

[15] Alternative translation: “Difficulties piled upon difficulties.”

[16] Yue Fei (1103 A.D. – 1142 A.D.) is a well-known and widely respected national hero of the South Song Dynasty, who defended China against invasions from the northern nations.

[17] The Qing Dong Tombs are located in Zunhua County, Hebei Province.  This is the imperial tomb site of five emperors of the Qing Dynasty (1644 A.D. – 1911 A.D.).

[18] Kangxi is the emperor who reigned between 1662 A.D. and 1722 A.D. during the Qing Dynasty.  Among all the emperors in Chinese history, Kangxi is one of the most respected, known for his virtue, wisdom, and broad-mindedness.

[19] For “Ten Evils,” please refer to the poem “The World’s Ten Evils.”

[20] Sun-Moon Pond is one of the eight most famous tourist resorts in Taiwan and the island’s only natural lake.

[21] Chang’an was an ancient capital for many dynasties, including the Tang Dynasty.  It is located in the northwest part of present-day Xi’an.

[22] Qinchuan is the name of an ancient location, which generally refers to the plains of Shanxi and Gansu provinces, north of Qinling.  At its center is Chang’an.

[23] “Taizong” refers to Tang Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, the emperor who reigned between 626 A.D. and 649 A.D.  Taizong is one of the most respected emperors, known for establishing the most prosperous, influential, and culturally diverse dynasty in Chinese history.

[24] “Tang” refers the Tang Dynasty (618 A.D. – 907 A.D.).

[25] Yanmen Pass is a historical site located in Shanxi Province. It was an important strategic point and one of the major passes on the Great Wall.  Many important battles took place here between China and the nations to the north.

[26] “Yanzhao” refers to Yang Yanzhao (958 A.D. – 1014 A.D.), a national hero and great general in the North Song Dynasty, who died in one of the battles against invasion from the north.

[27] “Central Plains” is a translation for 中原, which historically refers to the central part of China and thus can be translated as “central China.”   中原 can also refer to China in general.